Programming code snippets

"You have a problem and you decided to use Perl. Now you have two problems."

1. Bash
   1.001. Setting the current DATE and TIME
   1.002. Run PEPS2003 (passing args) in a whole directory of .san files, save progress to an output file
   1.003. Run a command, inside a loop (use of for and while) iterates in directory
   1.004. Using if - testing for initial parameters
   1.005. Multiple if

2. Perl
   2.001. Standard Perl header
   2.002. Open a file for reading, iterate through lines, remove \n
   2.003. Trim, changes multiple spaces for single space and functions for trim and strip (removing spaces inside strings)
   2.004. Open all *.txt files of a directory, runs a system command to print the last line of the file
   2.005. Print blocks of text
   2.006. Formatting numbers
   2.007. Printing blocks of text to an output file
   2.008. Using hashes with arrays and iterating
   2.009. Creating a dotty file from a matrix
   2.010. Passing two arrays to a subrotine and printing
   2.011. Date and time and printf
   2.012. Match everything betwen { and }
   2.013. Open file, match pattern between ( and ), reverse and print array without ending spaces
   2.014. Filling a string with zeroes (before the number)
   2.015. Take a file with many runs and execute the confidence intervals
   2.016. Call subrotine with array and variables
   2.017. Using hashes of arrays
   2.018. Convert an array to a matrix
   2.019. Convert photos from high definition to 4x6 inches (or 10x15 cms) format (1024x768)
   2.020. Convert movies from MPG ou MOV to AVI format
   2.021. Order hashes by keys or values
   2.022. Permutation Algorithm
   2.023. Open huge files in Perl
   2.024. Create a basic gnuplot file in Perl
   2.025. Read folder, iterate through subfolders, then its files
   2.026. Pattern matching of datetime format (e.g. 2010-10-13 17:55:39,666)
   2.027. Passing two hashes to a function
   2.028. Checks if number is an integer (greater than zero) or if number is integer or float
   2.029. Checks two datetime parameters ('yyyy mm dd hh:mm:ss') are valid
   2.030. Move files without system call
   2.031. Working with XML file and parameters

3. C/C++
   3.001. Solve an infinitesimal generator
   3.002. Removing equals from a list
   3.003. Removing chars from string
   3.004. Converting string to upper or lower case
   3.004. sampler - ferramenta para geração de samples da distribuição uniforme

4. Maple/Octave/Matlab
   4.001. Solve a pepa model in Maple
   4.002. Solve a Markov Chains model in Octave
   4.003. Print in file in Octave

5. Latex
   5.001. Figures in Latex
   5.002. Putting vertical labels in tables
   5.003. Script for cleaning latex files and compiling latex
   5.004. Full latex project for Lecture Notes in Computer Science format

6. Beamer
   6.001. A presentation in Beamer, with multiple slides
   6.002. Beamer complete list of themes

7. Miscelaneous
   7.001. A Makefile without having to tell all .c files
   7.002. Convert a .wav to .mp3 using lame
   7.003. Create a small book from a ps file
   7.004. Merging PDFs
   7.005. Converting between file formats
   7.006. Use regex in Notepad++

8. gnuplot
   7.001. opções gerais do gnuplot




1. Bash programming
1.001. Setting the current DATE and TIME
#!/bin/bash
DATE=`date +%d%m%Y.%H%S`
cd `somedir`

1.002. Run PEPS2003 (passing args) in a whole directory of .san files, save progress to an output file

echo "" > file.log
dirsan=/tmp
for i in $dirsan/*.san; do           #for all existing files in 'san' directory
   ni=${i//.san/}    #removes file termination .san (san wont accept it)
   rm $dirsan/agg/ $dirsan/cnd/ $dirsan/des/ $dirsan/dsc/ $dirsan/jit/ -rf
   rm $dirsan/*.vct -rf #remove previous peps stuff
   hora=`date +%H:%M:%S%t%d/%m` #saves current time, to mark progress
   echo "running $ni at $hora" >> file.log  #save to file.log what's running
   echo 4 2 100000 1 1 $ni 2 1 1 vector 0 2 | $dirsan/peps
      #the last line does 3 things: 
        #1. calls peps setting iterations to 100000 
        #2. compiling (1 1) and 
        #3. solving (2 1 1) then exiting (0 2)
      #we are assuming that the executable is in the dirsan directory
done

1.003. Run a command, inside a loop (use of for and while) iterates in directory
t=0
c=0
o=0
cut=10
term=62
dir=$base'models/8slaves/'
while [ $t -le $term ]; do
   path=$dir'term'$t
   for i in $path/*; do
      file=$path/'8slaves_'$t'_t'$o'.out'
      `rm $file -f`
      let o+=1
      while [ $c -le $cut ]; do
         `$base''split $i $c >> $file`
         let c+=1
      done
      c=0
   done
   o=0
   let t+=1
done

1.004. Using if - testing for initial parameters
#!/bin/bash


if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
   echo "error. missing parameter n"
else
   echo "success"
fi

1.005. Multiple if
#!/bin/sh

if [ "$1" = "" ]; then
  echo "invalid command. options: get/getall/put"
else
if [ "$1" = "getall" ]; then
  echo "retrieving ALL from foo"
else
if [ "$1" = "get" ]; then
  echo "retrieving *.htm from foo"
else
if [ "$1" = "put" ]; then
  if [ "$2" = "" ]; then
    echo "choose a file."
  else
    echo "uploading $2 to foo"
  fi
fi
fi
fi
fi


2. Perl programming
2.001. Standard Perl header
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

if (@ARGV != 1) { 
   print "missing FILE parameter. \nusage: perl file.pl FILE\n";
   exit;
}


2.002. Open a file for reading, iterate through lines, remove \n
open(INFILE, "<$file") or die("cannot open hash file named $file\n");
my(@lines) = <INFILE>;
close(INFILE);
foreach my $line (@lines) {
   $line =~ s/\n//g;
}

2.003. Trim, changes multiple spaces for single space
$line =~ s/^\s+//;  #trim at start
$line =~ s/\s+$//;  #trim at end
$line =~ s/\s+/ /g; #remove multiple spaces for single space
Or using functions to trim or strip spaces within strings:
# removes spaces from beginning and end of strings
sub  trim { my $s = shift; $s =~ s/^\s+|\s+$//g; return $s };

# substitutes extra spaces in the middle of strings for single spaces
sub strip { my $s = shift; $s =~ s/ +/ /g; return $s };

2.004. Open all *.txt files of a directory, runs a system command to print the last line of the file
#!/usr/bin/perl

my $path = $ARGV[0]."output/";
my @contents;
opendir MYDIR, $path;
@contents = grep !/^\.\.?$/,grep /.txt/, readdir MYDIR;
closedir MYDIR;
foreach my $file (@contents) {
   print "file=$file\n";
   system("tail -n 1 $path$file");
}

2.005. Print blocks of text

print >>END;
\\begin{table*}[!hbt]
\\begin{center}
END



2.006. Formatting numbers (requires module to be installed)
#put this on the header
use Number::Format qw(:subs :vars);
$THOUSANDS_SEP   = '.';
$DECIMAL_POINT   = ',';
$INT_CURR_SYMBOL = 'DEM';


#use it like this:
$mem = format_number($mem, 2, 1);
$complex = format_number($complex);

2.007. Printing blocks of text to an output file
open(OUTFILE, ">$name") or die("cannot open $name\n");
print OUTFILE >>END;
#!/bin/sh

set term postscript eps enhanced color
set xtics 2
plot[0:$termo][0:$lcut]   'bc_$model.txt' title "term x cut" with boxes 
END
close(OUTFILE);

#or

open(OUTFILE, ">$name") or die("cannot open $name\n");
print OUTFILE "this is some text to be printed\n";
close(OUTFILE);


2.008 Using hashes with arrays and iterating
$strut->{$lid} = {
   'gid'   =>   $gid,
   'aa'    =>   [@aa],
   'ja'    =>   [@ja],
   'ia'    =>   [@ia],
   'order' =>   $order,
   'nz'    =>   $nz,
};

#defining an array of hashes:
push @terms, $strut;

#iterating
foreach my $st (@terms) {
   foreach my $termo (keys %$strut) {
      print "gid=".($strut->{$termo}{'gid'})."\n";
      print "lid=$termo\n";
      print "order=".$strut->{$termo}{'order'}."\n";
      print "nz=".$strut->{$termo}{'nz'}."\n";
      print "id=".$strut->{$termo}{'id'}."\n";
   }
}

#finally, to print the whole structure, with arrays:
sub print_strut {
   my @lterms = @_;
   print "call to print...\n";
   foreach my $st (@lterms) {
      foreach my $termo (keys %$st) {
         print "term $termo [".($st->{$termo}{'gid'})."] nz=".$st->{$termo}{'nz'}."\n";
         my @aux=@{$st->{$termo}{'aa'}};
         print "aa: ";
         foreach my $a_ (@aux) {
            print "".$a_." ";
         }
         print "\n";
         my @aux=@{$st->{$termo}{'ja'}};
         print "ja: ";
         foreach my $a_ (@aux) {
            print "".$a_." ";
         }
         print "\n";
         my @aux=@{$st->{$termo}{'ia'}};
         print "ia: ";
         foreach my $a_ (@aux) {
            print "".$a_." ";
         }
         print "\n";
      }
      print "\n";
   }
}

2.009. Creating a dotty file from a matrix
print "digraph G {\n";
print "\tnode [shape = circle];\n";
for (my $i = 0; $i < $SIZE; $i++) {
   for (my $j = 0; $j < $SIZE; $j++) {
      if ($matrix[$i][$j] ne "") {
         my $label = "label$i$j";
         my $auxi = ($i+1) < 10 ? "0".($i+1) : ($i+1);
         my $auxj = ($j+1) < 10 ? "0".($j+1) : ($j+1);
         print "\tS".($auxi)." -> S".($auxj)." [ label = \"$label\" ]\n";
      }
   }
}
print "}\n";

2.010. Passing two arrays to a subrotine and printing

#call: verify_changes(@arr1, @arr2);

#subrotine:
sub verify_changes {
   my @v1 = @{$_[0]};
   my @v2 = @{$_[1]};
   print "printing...\n";
   for (my $i = 0; $i < $size; $i++) {
      print "$v1[$i] ";
   }
   print "\n";
   for (my $i = 0; $i < $size; $i++) {
      print "$v2[$i] ";
   }
   print "\n";
}

2.011. Date and time and printf
(my $sec,my $min,my $hour,my $mday,my $mon,my $year,my $wday,my $yday,my $isdst)=localtime(time);
printf "%4d-%02d-%02d %02d:%02d:%02d\n",$year+1900,$mon+1,$mday,$hour,$min,$sec;
#or
my $date = sprintf("%02d/%02d/%4d %02d:%02d:%02d\n",$mday,$mon+1,$year+1900,$hour,$min,$sec);
print $date."\n";

2.012. Match everything betwen { and }
if ($line =~ /(\s*)authors=\{(.*)\}/) {
   print "authors=$2\n";
}

2.013. Open file, match pattern between ( and ), reverse and print array without ending spaces
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

#this script will revert the .mdd final file in the same format peps works

if (@ARGV != 1) { 
   print "missing FILE parameter. \nusage: perl revert.pl FILE\nenter a .rep file with termination\n";
   exit;
}

my $rep_file = $ARGV[0];
open(INFILE, "<$rep_file") or die("cannot open $rep_file");
my(@lines) = <INFILE>;
close(INFILE);

my $name;
my $states;
my @entries;
my $cont = 0;
foreach my $line (@lines) {
   $line =~ s/\n//g;
   if ($line =~ /\(\s(.*)\s\)/) {  #for example ( 2 2 3 4 2 1 )
      $states = $1;
      (@entries) = split(" ", $states);
      @entries = reverse(@entries); #example of reverse
      foreach my $entry (@entries) {
         print "".((++$cont % @entries == 0) ? "$entry" : "$entry ");
      }
      #$cont = 0;
      print "\n";
   }
}

2.014. Filling a string with zeroes (before the number)
my $i = 10;
my $val = sprintf("%05d",$i);

2.015. Take a file with many runs and execute the confidence intervals

Download file here -> Coding language: Perl.

Download samples file here Text file containing some values.

2.016. Call subrotine with array and variables
deal(\@sizes,\@cuts,\@nzs,\@perms,$n_aut,$n_evt,$model);

...

sub deal {
   my ($sz,$ct,$nz,$pe,$auts,$evts,$model_) = @_;
   my @sizes_ = @$sz;
   my @cuts_ = @$ct;
   my @nzs_ = @$nz;
   my @perms_ = @$pe;
}

2.017. Using hashes of arrays
my %rosa = (
  'N66' => [80,0,0,0,1,1,70,100],
  'N23' => [1,70,80,100,30,3,2,1],
  'EQU' => [1,15,50,80,100,75,45,10],
  'S23' => [1,1,2,3,30,100,80,70],
  'S66' => [80,100,70,1,1,0,0,0]
);

...

foreach my $key (keys %rosa) {
   my @forces = @{$rosa{$key}};    #this is where you take the array reference
   print "$key\n";
   foreach my $f (@forces) {       #now, just use it
      print "$f ";
   }
   print "\n";
}

2.018. Convert an array to a matrix
#!/usr/bin/perl

#implementado em 18/01/2010

use strict;
use warnings;

#converte um vetor em uma matriz
#util para percorrer um vetor e imprimir a linha da matriz, acessando os indices corretos

#colocar valores multiplos para fechar matrizes quadradas (nao testado)

if (@ARGV != 2) { 
   print "falta TAMANHO ou DIMENSAO. \nuso: perl vec2mat.pl TAMANHO DIMENSAO\n\tTAMANHO: tamanho total do vetor\n\tDIMENSAO: dimensao final da matriz\n";
   exit;
}

my $SIZE = $ARGV[0];  #tamanho do vetor
my $DIM = $ARGV[1];   #cria uma matriz DIMxDIM a partir do vetor de SIZE posicoes

#inicia um vetor qualquer com valores quaisquer
my @ARR = ();
for (my $i = 0; $i < $SIZE; $i++) {
   push @ARR, $i;
}

#calcula o tamanho da linha
my $linha = @ARR / $DIM;

my $c = 0;
my $val = 0;
my $aux = 0;
for(my $i = 0; $i < @ARR; $i++) {
   my $o = ($c++ % $DIM);
   $val = $aux + ($linha * $o);
   print "$ARR[$val] ";
   if (($i + 1) % $DIM == 0) {
      print "\n";
      $aux++;
   }
}


2.019. Convert photos from high definition to 4x6 inches (or 10x15 cms) - 1024x768
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

if (@ARGV != 1) { 
   print "missing PATH parameter. \nusage: perl convert.pl PATH\n";
   exit;
}

my $path = $ARGV[0];

my @contents;
opendir MYDIR, $path;
@contents = grep !/^\.\.?$/,grep /.JPG/i, readdir MYDIR;
closedir MYDIR;
system("rm new -rf");
system("mkdir new");
foreach my $file (sort @contents) {
   my $fp = "$path/$file";
   my $aux = $file;
   $aux =~ s/\./;/;
   my $filename;
   my $term;
   ($filename,$term) = split(";",$aux);
   my $new_name = $filename."\_.".$term;
   print "[$aux] converting $file... to $new_name\n";
   system("convert -resize 1024x768 $file $new_name");
   system("mv $new_name ./new");
}

2.020. Convert movies from MPG ou MOV to AVI format
#!/bin/bash

for i in *.[Mm][Pp][Gg]; do
   filename=${i//.MPG/}
   mencoder $i -ofps 25 -ovc xvid -oac mp3lame -lameopts abr:br=192 -srate 48000 -xvidencopts fixed_quant=4 -o $filename.avi
done

ou, para converter de MOV para AVI
#!/bin/bash

for i in *.[Mm][Oo][Vv]; do
   filename=${i//.MOV/}

   mencoder $i -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:vpass=1 -oac mp3lame -lameopts br=128:cbr:vol=0:mode=0 -o $filename.avi
   mencoder $i -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:vpass=2 -oac mp3lame -lameopts br=128:cbr:vol=0:mode=0 -o $filename.avi
done

2.021. Order hashes by keys or values
#order by keys
my %FILES;
foreach my $key (sort keys %FILES) {
   print "$key => $FILES{$key}\n";
}

#1. order by values
my %FILES;
my @keys = sort { $FILES{$b} cmp $FILES{$a} } keys %FILES;
foreach my $key (@keys) {
   print "$key => $FILES{$key}\n";
}

#2. order when the key is an IP address, e.g. 200.12.34.3 or 15.189.22.33
my %IP;
foreach my $key (sort {(pack'C*',split/\./,$a) cmp (pack'C*',split/\./,$b)} keys %IP) {
   print "IP = $key => $IP{$key}\n";
}

#3. numeric hashes
foreach my $key (sort { $processes{$b} <=> $processes{$a} } keys %processes) {
}

2.022. Permutation Algorithm
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

permute(["x", "a", "b", "c"], []);

sub permute {
    my @items = @{ $_[0] };
    my @perms = @{ $_[1] };
    unless (@items) {
        verify(@perms);
    } else {
        my(@newitems,@newperms,$i);
        foreach $i (0 .. $#items) {
            @newitems = @items;
            @newperms = @perms;
            unshift(@newperms, splice(@newitems, $i, 1));
            permute([@newitems], [@newperms]);
        }
    }
}


sub verify {
    my @list = @_;
    print "@list\n";
}

2.023. Open huge files in Perl
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

open(INFILE, "<$file") or die("cannot open file named $file\n");
print "creating dat file with *hot* vector positions named '$hname'...\n";
while () {
   if ($_ =~ /vec\[(\d*)\] = (\d*)/) {
      #do something
   }
}

close(INFILE);


2.024. Create a basic gnuplot file in Perl

#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

if (@ARGV != 1) { 
   print "missing FILE parameter. \nusage: perl create_gnuplot.pl FILE\n";
   exit;
}

my $file = $ARGV[0];
if (!($file =~ /.log$/)) {
   print "file extension MUST be .log. exiting.\n";
   exit;
}

print "opening file named '$file'...\n";

my $base = $file;
$base =~ s/.log$//;

#create a gnuplot
my $gname = "$base.plot";
print "creating new gnuplot file named '$gname'\n";
open(OUTFILE, ">$gname") or die("cannot open $gname\n");
print OUTFILE "set terminal postscript enhanced color\n";
print OUTFILE "set output \"$base.eps\"\n";

#print OUTFILE "set logscale y\n";
print OUTFILE "set key right top\n";
print OUTFILE "set ylabel \"\# of vector access\"\n";
print OUTFILE "set xlabel \"Index\"\n";

print OUTFILE "set style line 1 lt 5 lc rgb \"#0000FF\" lw 1\n";
print OUTFILE "plot \\\n";
print OUTFILE " \"$base.hot\" using 1:2 ls 1 with impulses title \"Accesses\"\n";
close(OUTFILE);

system("gnuplot $base.plot");
system("evince $base.eps");


2.025. Read folder, iterate through subfolders, then its files
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

if (@ARGV != 1) {
  print "missing parameter DATA_DIR\nusage: perl iterate.pl DATA_DIR\n";
  exit;
}

my $path = "./".$ARGV[0];
print "reading directory $path ...\n";

my @dirs;
opendir DIR, $path;
@dirs = grep !/^\.\.?$/,grep /test/, readdir DIR;
closedir DIR;

foreach my $dir (sort @dirs) {
  print "directory read $dir\n";
  my @files;
  opendir FILE, $path.$dir;
  @files = grep !/^\.\.?$/,, readdir FILE;
  closedir FILE;
  foreach my $file (sort @files) {
  print "\tfile read $dir/$file\n";
  }  
}

2.026. Pattern matching of datetime format (e.g. 2010-10-13 17:55:39,666)
if ($timestamp =~ /^(\d{4})-(\d{2})-(\d{2}) (\d{2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2}),(\d{3})$/) {
    $Y = $1; $M = $2; $D = $3; $H = $4; $MI = $5; $S = $6; $CCC = $7;
    print "format: d=$D m=$M y=$Y h=$H mi=$MI s=$S ccc=$CCC\n";
}

2.027. Passing two hashes to a function
...
   compute(\%statespace, \%mc);


sub compute {
   my %statespace = %{ $_[0] };
   my %mc = %{ $_[1] };

   #...   
}

2.028. Checks if number is an integer (greater than zero)
# checks if number is an integer greater than zero
sub isInteger { 
   my $d = shift;
   return 1 if ($d =~ /^(\d+)$/);
   return 0;
}

# validates integer or float numbers: i.e. 35 or 87.53
sub isIntegerOrFloat {
   my $p = shift;
   return 1 if ($p =~ /^\d+(\.\d+)?(\s*)$/gi);
   return 0;
}

2.029. Checks two datetime parameters ('yyyy mm dd hh:mm:ss') are valid
use Time::Local;
use Cwd qw();

# checks if an interval of dates are correct, i.e., end is after start
# Parameters: first is the start time
#             second is the stop time
sub isValidDateInterval {
   my $d1_ = shift;
   my $d2_ = shift;
   
   my($yy1,$mm1,$dd1,$h1,$m1,$s1) = (0,0,0,0,0,0);
   $d1_ =~ m/^(\')(\d{4})\s(\d{2})\s(\d{2})\s(\d{2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})(\')$/g;
   $yy1=$2; $mm1=$3; $dd1=$4; $h1=$5; $m1=$6; $s1=$7;
   #print "date1: $dd1/$mm1/$yy1 $h1:$m1:$s1\n";
   my $seconds1 = timelocal($s1,$m1,$h1,$dd1,$mm1-1,$yy1);
   #print "seconds1=$seconds1\n";
   
   my($yy2,$mm2,$dd2,$h2,$m2,$s2) = (0,0,0,0,0,0);
   $d2_ =~ m/^(\')(\d{4})\s(\d{2})\s(\d{2})\s(\d{2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})(\')$/g;
   $yy2=$2; $mm2=$3; $dd2=$4; $h2=$5; $m2=$6; $s2=$7;
   #print "date2: $dd2/$mm2/$yy2 $h2:$m2:$s2\n";
   my $seconds2 = timelocal($s2,$m2,$h2,$dd2,$mm2-1,$yy2);
   #print "seconds2=$seconds2\n";

   #print "diff=".($seconds2-$seconds1)."\n";
   return 1 if ($seconds2-$seconds1>0);
   return 0;
}

2.030. Move files without system call
use File::Copy;
move("mc-$target_year.txt", "output/mc-$target_year.txt") or die "Move mc-$target_year.txt -> output/mc-$target_year.txt failed: $!";

2.031. Working with XML file and parameters
#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use warnings;

use XML::LibXML;

if (@ARGV != 1) { 
   print "missing FILE parameter. \nusage: perl test.pl FILE\n";
   exit;
}

my $file = $ARGV[0];

my $dom = XML::LibXML->load_xml(location => $file);
my $parser = XML::LibXML->new();
my $tree = $parser->parse_file($file);
my $root = $tree->getDocumentElement;

foreach my $id ($root->findnodes('//AMC/PROBABILITES_SEQUENCES/SEQUENCE')) {
   my $prob =  $id->findvalue('@PROBABILITE');
   print "Probability: $prob\n";
   foreach my $trans ($id->findnodes('./BRANCHE/TRANSITION')) {
      my $objet =  $trans->findvalue('@OBJET');
      my $realization = $trans->findvalue('@TRANS');
      print "\tObject: $objet\n";
      print "\tRealization: $realization\n";
   }
}

XML test file:

<AMC>
 <PROBABILITES_SEQUENCES>
  <SEQUENCE TRONQUEE="CIBLE" PROBABILITE="0.22983">
   <BRANCHE DATE_FIN_MOY="2595.97313362042">
    <TRANSITION OBJET="acquire" REGLE="success_undetected" TRANS="real"/>
   </BRANCHE>
   <BRANCHE DATE_FIN_MOY="2595.97313362042">
    <TRANSITION OBJET="data" REGLE="real_nd" TRANS="no_realization"/>
    <TRANSITION OBJET="abs" REGLE="real_nd" TRANS="nd_real"/>
    <TRANSITION OBJET="muscular" REGLE="real_nd" TRANS="no_realization"/>
   </BRANCHE>
  </SEQUENCE>
  <SEQUENCE TRONQUEE="CIBLE" PROBABILITE="0.10047">
   <BRANCHE DATE_FIN_MOY="2588.08094838842">
    <TRANSITION OBJET="balance" REGLE="success_undetected" TRANS="real"/>
   </BRANCHE>
   <BRANCHE DATE_FIN_MOY="2588.08094838842">
    <TRANSITION OBJET="data" REGLE="real_nd" TRANS="nd_real"/>
    <TRANSITION OBJET="abs" REGLE="real_nd" TRANS="nd_real"/>
    <TRANSITION OBJET="muscular" REGLE="real_nd" TRANS="no_realization"/>
   </BRANCHE>
  </SEQUENCE>
 </PROBABILITES_SEQUENCES>
</AMC>



3. C/C++ programming
3.001. Solve an infinitesimal generator

Download file here -> Coding language: C++.
Obs.: the file must have the following format:
q1
n9
-2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 -6 1 5 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 -10 0 10 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -6 6 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 -13 3 5 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 -5 0 5 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 -4 4 0
0 0 0 5 0 0 0 -7 2
0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 -5

The call for the executable is: ./aps ITERATIONS FILE
Example: ./aps 100 file.txt
The output will be the resulting vector.

3.002. Removing equals from a list

#include <vector>
#include <list>
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <fstream>

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <assert.h>


using namespace std;

//for minimum and maximum float value
#include <float.h>

std::vector<int> removeequals(int *y, int size) {
   std::list<int> l;
   for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
      l.push_back(y[i]);
   }
   l.sort();
   l.unique();
   std::vector<int> v(l.begin(), l.end());
   return v;
}

int main(char argc, char** argv) {
    
   if (argc != 1) {
      printf("Usage: ./list\n\n");
      //printf("FILE file name to be open\nmodel - model to be used\nruns - number of executions\n");
      exit(0);
   }
   int *y = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int)*10);
   y[0] = 15;
   y[1] = 11;
   y[2] = 11;
   y[3] = 12;
   y[4] = 11;
   y[5] = 14;
   y[6] = 11;
   y[7] = 14;
   y[8] = 12;
   y[9] = 11;

   std::vector<int> newv = removeequals(y, 10);
   for (int i = 0; i < newv.size(); i++) {
      int value = (int) newv[i];
      cout << "value["<<i<<"]=" << value << endl;
   }
   return 0;
}


3.003. Removing chars from string
string StringUtils::removechar(const char r, const string& in) {
   string out = in;
   while (out.find(r) != string::npos) {
      string::size_type pos = out.find(r);
      out.erase(pos,1);
   }
   return out;
}


3.004. Converting string to upper or lower case
string lcase(const string& in) {
   string out = in;
   std::transform(out.begin(), out.end(), out.begin(), ::tolower);
   return out;
}

string ucase(const string& in) {
   string out = in;
   std::transform(out.begin(), out.end(), out.begin(), ::toupper);
   return out;
}



3.004. sampler - ferramenta para geração de samples da distribuição uniforme

baixe aqui a ferramenta



4. Maple/Matlab/Octave
4.001. Solve a pepa model in Maple

n:=2;
l:=1;
r:=3;
p:=5;
t:=4;

with(linalg):
Q := array(sparse,1..96,1..96):
read `mobile2agents.maple`:
b := array(sparse,1..96):
for i to 96 do
    Q[i,96] := 1.0
od:
b[96] := 1:
QT := transpose(Q):
P := linsolve(QT,b);
n:=2;
l:=1;
r:=3;
p:=5;
t:=4;

with(linalg):
Q := array(sparse,1..96,1..96):
read `mobile2agents.maple`:
b := array(sparse,1..96):
for i to 96 do
    Q[i,96] := 1.0
od:
b[96] := 1:
QT := transpose(Q):
P := linsolve(QT,b);


4.002. Solve a Markov Chains model in Octave
#author: Ricardo M. Czekster
#created: 01/27/2010

clear;

#infinitesimal generator definition
#every line must sums to zero (diagonal has the negative sum of the line)
Q = [-109.3154, 100, 0, 0, 0, 9.1854, 0, 0, 0.13, 0, 0;
200, -205.13, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.13;
0, 0.0004, -135.0004, 8, 0, 0, 127, 0, 0, 0, 0;
0, 0, 41.58, -58.58, 17, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0;
0, 0, 0, 1.69, -3.04, 1.35, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0;
87, 0, 0, 0, 0.18, -87.18, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0;
0, 0, 14, 0, 0, 0, -17.5, 3.5, 0, 0, 0;
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4.2336, -104.4436, 100, 0.21, 0;
100, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 419.58, -519.58, 0, 0;
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2.77, 0, -10.57, 7.8;
0, 0.013, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 30.24, -30.253];

#just saves original matrix before manipulation (uncomment here if needed)
#O = Q;

#last column set to one
for i=1:11
  Q(i,11) = 1;
endfor

b = [0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 1];

#transpose matrix Q
QT = Q';

#linear solution (results in vector P)
P = QT \ b;

#probability output (times 100)
#P *= 100;

4.003. Print in file using Octave

#create a file with .m extension

1;

start = 1;
lmax = 100;

X_t = zeros(1,lmax);

#create a file named out.txt with n and X as values from start to lmax
filename = "out.txt";
fid = fopen (filename, "w+");
fprintf(fid,"#n X\n");

i = 1;
for n=start:lmax

   fprintf(fid,"%d %f\n",n,X_t(i));

   i = i + 1;
endfor
fclose(fid);


5. Latex
5.001. Figures in Latex


5.002. Putting vertical labels in tables
\usepackage{rotating}

...

\begin{tabular}{|r|r|}\hline
\begin{sideways}Paper\end{sideways} &\begin{sideways}Static\end{sideways} \\
\hline
HAR1994j & Journal \\
SWRT1996c & Conference \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

5.003. Script for cleaning latex files and compiling latex

Cleaning a latex directory with a bash script -> Script language: bash.

Compiling latex from a bash script -> Script language: bash.

5.004. Full latex project for Lecture Notes in Computer Science format

Template for LNCS project -> Latex files.


6. Beamer presentations
6.001. A presentation in Beamer, with multiple slides

Download presentation+figures
Link to some useful tips

6.002. Beamer complete list of themes

To use it, change the following line:
\usetheme{THEME}
I particularly like the Frankfurt theme. It is the most classic. He is without sections, only balls to mark where you are in the presentation.

AnnArbor
Antibes
Bergen
Berkeley
Berlin
Boadilla
CambridgeUS
Copenhagen
Darmstadt
Dresden
Frankfurt
Goettingen
Hannover
Ilmenau
JuanLesPins
Luebeck
Madrid
Malmoe
Marburg
Montpellier
PaloAlto
Pittsburgh
Rochester
Singapore
Stuttgart
Szeged
Warsaw


7. Miscelaneous
7.001. 7. A Makefile without having to tell all .c files
#
# Makefile of XXXX XXXX
# Changed by xxxx@xxx.xxxxx.xx
#

CPP=g++
INCLUDE_DIR = ./include
BIN_DIR = .
OBJ_DIR = .
LIB_DIR = ./lib

# The options of compilation (debug or optimization)
CPPFLAGS= -I/usr/local/include -Wno-non-virtual-dtor -Wno-deprecated -O3 -I$(INCLUDE_DIR)

# The options of linkage
LDFLAGS= -L$(LIB_DIR) -lyourlib

SOURCES := $(patsubst %.cpp,%.o,$(wildcard *.cpp))
OBJECTS=$(SOURCES:.cpp=.o)
EXECUTABLE=hello

compile: $(SOURCES) $(EXECUTABLE)
	
$(EXECUTABLE): $(OBJECTS)
	$(CPP) $(LDFLAGS) $(OBJECTS) -o $@

.cpp.o:
	$(CPP) $(CPPFLAGS) -c $< -o $@

all: compile

clean:
	rm -f *.o hello


7.002. Convert a .wav to .mp3 using lame
for i in *.wav; do lame --preset standard $i `basename $i .wav`.mp3; done

7.003. Create a small book from a ps file
psbook IN OUT
psnup -pa4 -2 IN OUT

7.004. Merging PDFs
gs -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -q -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -sOutputFile=output.pdf file1.pdf file2.pdf 

7.005. Converting between file formats
iconv --from-code=ISO-8859-1 --to-code=UTF-8 ./file.txt > out.txt

7.006. Use regex in Notepad++
Example of use of Arena's output (in Portuguese):
Open Search Dialog (Ctrl-F) then change 'Search Mode' to "Regular expression"
Atendimento no Caixa.Queue.NumberInQueue.*\s*\.\d*


8. gnuplot
8.001. 8. Opções gerais do gnuplot

Posicionamento de legendas na figura:
set key {  left | right | top | bottom | outside | below }

Segundo eixo y:
plot "ad.txt" using 1:2 axes x1y2 ls 1 with boxes title "Experimento 2 - 9"

Operações com colunas:
plot \
 "ad.txt" using 1:($3-$2) with boxes title "Experimento [3 - 2]", \
 "" using 1:2 with lines title "Experimento 2"

arquivo "ad.txt" (observe que ele contém 3 colunas, ou seja, $1, $2 e $3):
1 10 2
2 15 5
3 21 10
4 15 8
5 11 10
6 9 3
...


Exemplo com estilos de linha:
set term postscript eps color
set output "ad.eps"

set logscale xy
set xrange[9.5:16.5]
set key right bottom
set grid

set style line 1 lt 1 lc rgb "red" lw 3
set style line 2 lt 2 lc rgb "blue" lw 1
set style line 3 lt 3 lc rgb "yellow" lw 3
set style line 4 lt 4 lc rgb "#aabbcc" lw 1
set style line 5 lt 5 lc rgb "grey" lw 1

plot \
 "ad.txt" using 1:2 ls 1 with lines title "Experimento 1", \
 "" using 1:3 ls 2 with lines title "Experimento 2", \
 "" using 1:4 ls 3 with lines title "Experimento 3", \
 "" using 1:5 ls 4 with lines title "Experimento 4", \
 "" using 1:6 ls 5 with lines title "Experimento 5"


Exemplo de uso de multiplot:
set term postscript eps color
set output "results.eps"

set multiplot layout 1, 2 title "Resultados do Modelo Mestre-Escravo"

######################################################################
set title "Tempo (s) - Escala loglog"

set logscale xy
set xrange[4.5:10.5]
set key left top

plot \
 "slaves.txt" using 1:2 with lines title "Exp. 1", \
 "" using 1:3 with lines title "Experimento 2", \
 "" using 1:4 with lines title "Experimento 3", \
 "" using 1:5 with lines title "Experimento 4", \
 "" using 1:6 with lines title "Experimento 5"

######################################################################
set title "Memoria (Kb) - Escala loglog"

set logscale xy
set xrange[4.5:10.5]
set key left top

plot \
 "slaves.txt" using 1:11 ls 1 with lines title "Exp. 1", \
 "" using 1:12 ls 3 with lines title "Exp. 3", \
 "" using 1:13 ls 5 with lines title "Exp. 5", \
 "" using 1:14 ls 6 with lines title "Exp. 6", \
 "" using 1:15 ls 7 with lines title "Exp. 7", \
 "" using 1:16 ls 8 with lines title "Exp. 8"


Animação (.gif) e desenhar uma matriz:
set terminal gif animate delay 1
set output "floripa_certo.gif"

#set view 60,60
set view 60,45
#set view 0,180
#set nosurface
#set contour base
#set dgrid3d
set surface
set pm3d
set cntrparam levels auto 30
splot "floripa_certo_1.dat" matrix with lines
splot "floripa_certo_501.dat" matrix with lines 
splot "floripa_certo_1001.dat" matrix with lines 


Multiplot com apenas um eixo X e o resto 'stacked'
set terminal postscript
set output "data.ps"
unset key
NX=1; NY=3
DX=0.01; DY=0.01; SX=0.85; SY=0.25
set bmargin DX; set tmargin DX; set lmargin DY; set rmargin DY
## set the margin of each side of a plot as small as possible
## to connect each plot without space
set size SX*NX+DX*1.5,SY*NY+DY*1.8
set multiplot
## First Figure-bottom
set size SX,SY
set xrange [0:140]
set yrange [-0.9:0.9]
set ytic -0.6,0.3,0.6 ### from -0.6 to 0.6 with 0.3 interval
set origin DX,DY;
plot sin(x)
###Second Figure-middle
set origin DX,DY+SY;
unset xtics
plot sin(x**2)
##- Third Figure-top
set origin DX,DY+SY*2
plot cos(x)
unset multiplot




Copyright © Ricardo M. Czekster